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Wer WarS This is a list of wars involving the United States. USA victory USA defeat Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result of civil or internal conflict, result unknown or indecisive). This is a list of conflicts in Africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between African nations, civil wars, and wars involving non-African nations that took place within Africa. It encompasses colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national. This is a list of wars that began between and Other wars can be found in the historical lists of wars and the list of wars extended by diplomatic irregularity. Major conflicts of this period include the Chinese Civil War in Asia, the Greek Civil War in Europe, La Violencia in South America, the Ethiopian Civil War in Africa, and the Guatemalan Civil War in North America. The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. Da Capo Press. ^ Gregory Fremont-Barnes Wars of the Barbary Coast: To the Shores of Tripoli (Osprey Publishing ) ^ John Randolph Spears David G Farragut (Cornell University Press, ) pg 39 ^ Edgar Stanton Maclay, A History of the United States Navy from to pg. This is a list of wars involving the United States. USA victory USA defeat Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result of civil or internal conflict, result unknown or indecisive).

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Four imperial dynasties—the Habsburgs of Austria-Hungary , the Hohenzollerns of Germany, the sultanate of the Ottoman Empire, and the Romanovs of Russia—collapsed as a direct result of the war, and the map of Europe was changed forever.

The United States emerged as a world power, and new technology made warfare deadlier than ever before.

World War I was one of the great watersheds of 20th-century geopolitical history. It led to the fall of four great imperial dynasties in Germany , Russia , Austria-Hungary, and Turkey , resulted in the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, and, in its destabilization of European society, laid the groundwork for World War II.

This assurance was confirmed in the week following the assassination, before William, on July 6, set off upon his annual cruise to the North Cape , off Norway.

The Austrians decided to present an unacceptable ultimatum to Serbia and then to declare war, relying on Germany to deter Russia from intervention.

When the delivery was announced, on July 24, Russia declared that Austria-Hungary must not be allowed to crush Serbia.

Though Serbia offered to submit the issue to international arbitration, Austria-Hungary promptly severed diplomatic relations and ordered partial mobilization.

Home from his cruise on July 27, William learned on July 28 how Serbia had replied to the ultimatum. The U-boat threat lessened in , when merchant ships began travelling in convoys , escorted by destroyers.

This tactic made it difficult for U-boats to find targets, which significantly lessened losses; after the hydrophone and depth charges were introduced, accompanying destroyers could attack a submerged submarine with some hope of success.

Convoys slowed the flow of supplies, since ships had to wait as convoys were assembled. The solution to the delays was an extensive program of building new freighters.

Troopships were too fast for the submarines and did not travel the North Atlantic in convoys. Faced with Russia in the east, Austria-Hungary could spare only one-third of its army to attack Serbia.

After suffering heavy losses, the Austrians briefly occupied the Serbian capital, Belgrade. A Serbian counter-attack in the Battle of Kolubara succeeded in driving them from the country by the end of For the first ten months of , Austria-Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy.

German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats, however, scored a coup by persuading Bulgaria to join the attack on Serbia.

Montenegro allied itself with Serbia. Bulgaria declared war on Serbia on 12 October and joined in the attack by the Austro-Hungarian army under Mackensen's army of , that was already underway.

Serbia was conquered in a little more than a month, as the Central Powers, now including Bulgaria, sent in , troops total.

The Serbian army, fighting on two fronts and facing certain defeat, retreated into northern Albania. The Serbs suffered defeat in the Battle of Kosovo.

Montenegro covered the Serbian retreat towards the Adriatic coast in the Battle of Mojkovac in 6—7 January , but ultimately the Austrians also conquered Montenegro.

The surviving Serbian soldiers were evacuated by ship to Greece. In late , a Franco-British force landed at Salonica in Greece to offer assistance and to pressure its government to declare war against the Central Powers.

After intense negotiations and an armed confrontation in Athens between Allied and royalist forces an incident known as Noemvriana , the King of Greece resigned and his second son Alexander took his place; Greece officially joined the war on the side of the Allies in June The Macedonian front was initially mostly static.

French and Serbian forces retook limited areas of Macedonia by recapturing Bitola on 19 November following the costly Monastir Offensive , which brought stabilisation of the front.

Serbian and French troops finally made a breakthrough in September in the Vardar Offensive , after most of the German and Austro-Hungarian troops had been withdrawn.

The Bulgarians were defeated at the Battle of Dobro Pole , and by 25 September British and French troops had crossed the border into Bulgaria proper as the Bulgarian army collapsed.

Bulgaria capitulated four days later, on 29 September The disappearance of the Macedonian front meant that the road to Budapest and Vienna was now opened to Allied forces.

Hindenburg and Ludendorff concluded that the strategic and operational balance had now shifted decidedly against the Central Powers and, a day after the Bulgarian collapse, insisted on an immediate peace settlement.

As the conflict progressed, the Ottoman Empire took advantage of the European powers' preoccupation with the war and conducted large-scale ethnic cleansing of the indigenous Armenian , Greek , and Assyrian Christian populations, known as the Armenian Genocide , Greek Genocide , and Assyrian Genocide.

The British and French opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli and Mesopotamian campaigns In Mesopotamia , by contrast, after the defeat of the British defenders in the Siege of Kut by the Ottomans —16 , British Imperial forces reorganised and captured Baghdad in March The British were aided in Mesopotamia by local Arab and Assyrian tribesmen, while the Ottomans employed local Kurdish and Turcoman tribes.

Russian armies generally had success in the Caucasus campaign. Enver Pasha , supreme commander of the Ottoman armed forces, was ambitious and dreamed of re-conquering central Asia and areas that had been lost to Russia previously.

He was, however, a poor commander. The Ottomans and Germans were aided by Kurdish and Azeri forces, together with a large number of major Iranian tribes, such as the Qashqai , Tangistanis , Luristanis , and Khamseh , while the Russians and British had the support of Armenian and Assyrian forces.

The Persian Campaign was to last until and end in failure for the Ottomans and their allies. However, the Russian withdrawal from the war in led to Armenian and Assyrian forces, who had hitherto inflicted a series of defeats upon the forces of the Ottomans and their allies, being cut off from supply lines, outnumbered, outgunned and isolated, forcing them to fight and flee towards British lines in northern Mesopotamia.

General Yudenich , the Russian commander from to , drove the Turks out of most of the southern Caucasus with a string of victories.

Nicholas planned a railway from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories, so that fresh supplies could be brought up for a new offensive in However, in March February in the pre-revolutionary Russian calendar , the Tsar abdicated in the course of the February Revolution , and the Russian Caucasus Army began to fall apart.

Fakhri Pasha , the Ottoman commander of Medina , resisted for more than two and half years during the Siege of Medina before surrendering in January The Senussi tribe, along the border of Italian Libya and British Egypt, incited and armed by the Turks, waged a small-scale guerrilla war against Allied troops.

The British were forced to dispatch 12, troops to oppose them in the Senussi Campaign. Their rebellion was finally crushed in mid Total Allied casualties on the Ottoman fronts amounted , men.

Total Ottoman casualties were , , dead and , wounded. Rome had a secret pact with France, effectively nullifying its part in the Triple Alliance; [] Italy secretly agreed with France to remain neutral if the latter was attacked by Germany.

The Austro-Hungarian government began negotiations to secure Italian neutrality, offering the French colony of Tunisia in return.

The Allies made a counter-offer in which Italy would receive the Southern Tyrol , Austrian Littoral and territory on the Dalmatian coast after the defeat of Austria-Hungary.

This was formalised by the Treaty of London. Fifteen months later, Italy declared war on Germany. The Italians had numerical superiority, but this advantage was lost, not only because of the difficult terrain in which the fighting took place, but also because of the strategies and tactics employed.

On the Trentino front, the Austro-Hungarians took advantage of the mountainous terrain, which favoured the defender. After an initial strategic retreat, the front remained largely unchanged, while Austrian Kaiserschützen and Standschützen engaged Italian Alpini in bitter hand-to-hand combat throughout the summer.

The Austro-Hungarians counterattacked in the Altopiano of Asiago , towards Verona and Padua, in the spring of Strafexpedition , but made little progress and were defeated by the Italians.

Of these eleven offensives, five were won by Italy, three remained inconclusive, and the other three were repelled by the Austro-Hungarians, who held the higher ground.

The Central Powers launched a crushing offensive on 26 October , spearheaded by the Germans, and achieved a victory at Caporetto Kobarid.

The new Italian chief of staff, Armando Diaz , ordered the Army to stop their retreat and defend the Monte Grappa summit, where fortified defenses were constructed; the Italians repelled the Austro-Hungarian and German Army, and stabilised the front at the Piave River.

Since the Italian Army had suffered heavy losses in the Battle of Caporetto, the Italian Government ordered conscription of the so-called ' 99 Boys Ragazzi del '99 : all males born in and prior, who were 18 years old or older.

In , the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through in a series of battles on the Piave and were finally decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October.

On the same day, the Armistice of Villa Giusti was signed. By mid-November , the Italian military occupied the entire former Austrian Littoral and had seized control of the portion of Dalmatia that had been guaranteed to Italy by the London Pact.

Romania had been allied with the Central Powers since When the war began, however, it declared its neutrality, arguing that because Austria-Hungary had itself declared war on Serbia, Romania was under no obligation to join the war.

In return, it received the Allies' formal sanction for Transylvania , Banat and other territories of Austria-Hungary to be annexed to Romania.

The action had large popular support. The Romanian offensive was initially successful in Transylvania, but a Central Powers counterattack by the drove them back.

In January , Romanian forces established control over Bessarabia as the Russian Army abandoned the province. Under the treaty, Romania was obliged to end the war with the Central Powers and make small territorial concessions to Austria-Hungary, ceding control of some passes in the Carpathian Mountains , and to grant oil concessions to Germany.

In exchange, the Central Powers recognised the sovereignty of Romania over Bessarabia. The treaty was renounced in October by the Alexandru Marghiloman government, and Romania nominally re-entered the war on 10 November against the Central Powers.

Russian plans for the start of the war called for simultaneous invasions of Austrian Galicia and East Prussia.

Although Russia's initial advance into Galicia was largely successful, it was driven back from East Prussia by Hindenburg and Ludendorff at the battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes in August and September Despite Russia's success in the June Brusilov Offensive against the Austrians in eastern Galicia, [] the offensive was undermined by the reluctance of other Russian generals to commit their forces to support the victory.

Allied and Russian forces were revived only briefly by Romania's entry into the war on 27 August, as Romania was rapidly defeated by a Central Powers offensive.

Meanwhile, unrest grew in Russia as the Tsar remained at the front. The increasingly incompetent rule of Empress Alexandra drew protests and resulted in the murder of her favourite, Rasputin , at the end of In March , demonstrations in Petrograd culminated in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the appointment of a weak Provisional Government , which shared power with the Petrograd Soviet socialists.

This arrangement led to confusion and chaos both at the front and at home. The army became increasingly ineffective. Following the Tsar's abdication, Vladimir Lenin —with the help of the German government—was ushered by train from Switzerland into Russia 16 April The Revolution of November was followed in December by an armistice and negotiations with Germany.

The treaty ceded vast territories, including Finland, the Baltic provinces , parts of Poland and Ukraine to the Central Powers. With the adoption of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Entente no longer existed.

The Allied powers led a small-scale invasion of Russia, partly to stop Germany from exploiting Russian resources, and to a lesser extent, to support the "Whites" as opposed to the "Reds" in the Russian Civil War.

The Czechoslovak Legion fought on the side of the Entente. Its goal was to win support for the independence of Czechoslovakia. After this success, the number of Czechoslovak legionaries increased, as well as Czechoslovak military power.

In the Battle of Bakhmach , the Legion defeated the Germans and forced them to make a truce. In Russia, they were heavily involved in the Russian Civil War, siding with the Whites against the Bolsheviks , at times controlling most of the Trans-Siberian railway and conquering all the major cities of Siberia.

The presence of the Czechoslovak Legion near Yekaterinburg appears to have been one of the motivations for the Bolshevik execution of the Tsar and his family in July Legionaries arrived less than a week afterwards and captured the city.

Because Russia's European ports were not safe, the corps was evacuated by a long detour via the port of Vladivostok. The last transport was the American ship Heffron in September On 12 December , after ten brutal months of the Battle of Verdun and a successful offensive against Romania , Germany attempted to negotiate a peace with the Allies.

Soon after, the US president, Woodrow Wilson, attempted to intervene as a peacemaker, asking in a note for both sides to state their demands.

Lloyd George's War Cabinet considered the German offer to be a ploy to create divisions amongst the Allies.

After initial outrage and much deliberation, they took Wilson's note as a separate effort, signalling that the United States was on the verge of entering the war against Germany following the "submarine outrages".

While the Allies debated a response to Wilson's offer, the Germans chose to rebuff it in favour of "a direct exchange of views".

Learning of the German response, the Allied governments were free to make clear demands in their response of 14 January. They sought restoration of damages, the evacuation of occupied territories, reparations for France, Russia and Romania, and a recognition of the principle of nationalities.

Events of proved decisive in ending the war, although their effects were not fully felt until The British naval blockade began to have a serious impact on Germany.

In response, in February , the German General Staff convinced Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg to declare unrestricted submarine warfare, with the goal of starving Britain out of the war.

German planners estimated that unrestricted submarine warfare would cost Britain a monthly shipping loss of , tons.

The General Staff acknowledged that the policy would almost certainly bring the United States into the conflict, but calculated that British shipping losses would be so high that they would be forced to sue for peace after five to six months, before American intervention could have an effect.

After July, the newly re-introduced convoy system became effective in reducing the U-boat threat. Britain was safe from starvation, while German industrial output fell, and the United States joined the war far earlier than Germany had anticipated.

On 3 May , during the Nivelle Offensive, the French 2nd Colonial Division, veterans of the Battle of Verdun, refused orders, arriving drunk and without their weapons.

Their officers lacked the means to punish an entire division, and harsh measures were not immediately implemented. The French Army Mutinies eventually spread to a further 54 French divisions, and 20, men deserted.

However, appeals to patriotism and duty, as well as mass arrests and trials, encouraged the soldiers to return to defend their trenches, although the French soldiers refused to participate in further offensive action.

Previously, British and French armies had operated under separate commands. In December, the Central Powers signed an armistice with Russia, thus freeing large numbers of German troops for use in the west.

With German reinforcements and new American troops pouring in, the outcome was to be decided on the Western Front. The Central Powers knew that they could not win a protracted war, but they held high hopes for success based on a final quick offensive.

Furthermore, both sides became increasingly fearful of social unrest and revolution in Europe. Thus, both sides urgently sought a decisive victory.

In , Emperor Charles I of Austria secretly attempted separate peace negotiations with Clemenceau, through his wife's brother Sixtus in Belgium as an intermediary, without the knowledge of Germany.

Italy opposed the proposals. When the negotiations failed, his attempt was revealed to Germany, resulting in a diplomatic catastrophe.

In early , the front line was extended and the Jordan Valley was occupied, following the First Transjordan and the Second Transjordan attacks by British Empire forces in March and April They were replaced by Indian Army units.

During several months of reorganisation and training of the summer, a number of attacks were carried out on sections of the Ottoman front line.

These pushed the front line north to more advantageous positions for the Entente in preparation for an attack and to acclimatise the newly arrived Indian Army infantry.

It was not until the middle of September that the integrated force was ready for large-scale operations.

The reorganised Egyptian Expeditionary Force, with an additional mounted division, broke Ottoman forces at the Battle of Megiddo in September In two days the British and Indian infantry, supported by a creeping barrage, broke the Ottoman front line and captured the headquarters of the Eighth Army Ottoman Empire at Tulkarm , the continuous trench lines at Tabsor , Arara , and the Seventh Army Ottoman Empire headquarters at Nablus.

The Desert Mounted Corps rode through the break in the front line created by the infantry. Samakh and Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee were captured on the way northwards to Damascus.

The Armistice of Mudros , signed at the end of October, ended hostilities with the Ottoman Empire when fighting was continuing north of Aleppo.

At the outbreak of the war, the United States pursued a policy of non-intervention , avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace.

Germany complied. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. However, he also repeatedly warned that the United States would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law.

Former president Theodore Roosevelt denounced German acts as "piracy". In January , Germany decided to resume unrestricted submarine warfare, in the hopes of starving Britain into surrender.

Germany did this realising it would mean American entry. In return, the Germans would finance Mexico's war and help it recover the territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.

From there it made its way to President Wilson who released the Zimmermann note to the public, and Americans saw it as casus belli.

Wilson called on anti-war elements to end all wars, by winning this one and eliminating militarism from the globe.

He argued that the war was so important that the US had to have a voice in the peace conference. The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled "Associated Power".

The United States had a small army, but, after the passage of the Selective Service Act , it drafted 2. German General Staff assumptions that it would be able to defeat the British and French forces before American troops reinforced them were proven incorrect.

Several regiments of US Marines were also dispatched to France. The British and French wanted American units used to reinforce their troops already on the battle lines and not waste scarce shipping on bringing over supplies.

General John J. As an exception, he did allow African-American combat regiments to be used in French divisions.

General Foch was appointed as supreme commander of the Allied forces. Haig, Petain, and Pershing retained tactical control of their respective armies; Foch assumed a co-ordinating rather than a directing role, and the British, French, and US commands operated largely independently.

General Foch pressed to use the arriving American troops as individual replacements, whereas Pershing still sought to field American units as an independent force.

These units were assigned to the depleted French and British Empire commands on 28 March Ludendorff drew up plans codenamed Operation Michael for the offensive on the Western Front.

The Spring Offensive sought to divide the British and French forces with a series of feints and advances.

The German leadership hoped to end the war before significant US forces arrived. The operation commenced on 21 March with an attack on British forces near Saint-Quentin.

British and French trenches were penetrated using novel infiltration tactics , also named Hutier tactics after General Oskar von Hutier , by specially trained units called stormtroopers.

Previously, attacks had been characterised by long artillery bombardments and massed assaults. In the Spring Offensive of , however, Ludendorff used artillery only briefly and infiltrated small groups of infantry at weak points.

They attacked command and logistics areas and bypassed points of serious resistance. More heavily armed infantry then destroyed these isolated positions.

This German success relied greatly on the element of surprise. Many Germans thought victory was near. After heavy fighting, however, the offensive was halted.

Lacking tanks or motorised artillery , the Germans were unable to consolidate their gains. The problems of re-supply were also exacerbated by increasing distances that now stretched over terrain that was shell-torn and often impassable to traffic.

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The opening day of the offensive 1 July was the bloodiest day in the history of the British Army , suffering 57, casualties, including 19, dead.

The entire Somme offensive cost the British Army some , casualties. The French suffered another estimated , casualties and the Germans an estimated , To maintain morale, wartime censors minimised early reports of widespread influenza illness and mortality in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States.

Protracted action at Verdun throughout , [] combined with the bloodletting at the Somme, brought the exhausted French army to the brink of collapse.

Futile attempts using frontal assault came at a high price for both the British and the French and led to the widespread French Army Mutinies , after the failure of the costly Nivelle Offensive of April—May The last large-scale offensive of this period was a British attack with French support at Passchendaele July—November This offensive opened with great promise for the Allies, before bogging down in the October mud.

Casualties, though disputed, were roughly equal, at some ,—, per side. The years of trench warfare on the Western front achieved no major exchanges of territory and, as a result, are often thought of as static and unchanging.

However, throughout this period, British, French, and German tactics constantly evolved to meet new battlefield challenges.

At the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe, some of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping.

The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down, though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping.

Before the beginning of the war, it was widely understood that Britain held the position of strongest, most influential navy in the world.

Instead, this book made it to Germany and inspired its readers to try to over-power the British Royal Navy.

Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Britain began a naval blockade of Germany. The strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies, although this blockade violated accepted international law codified by several international agreements of the past two centuries.

It was the only full-scale clash of battleships during the war, and one of the largest in history.

The engagement was a stand off, as the Germans were outmanoeuvred by the larger British fleet, but managed to escape and inflicted more damage to the British fleet than they received.

Strategically, however, the British asserted their control of the sea, and the bulk of the German surface fleet remained confined to port for the duration of the war.

German U-boats attempted to cut the supply lines between North America and Britain. After the sinking of the passenger ship RMS Lusitania in , Germany promised not to target passenger liners, while Britain armed its merchant ships, placing them beyond the protection of the " cruiser rules ", which demanded warning and movement of crews to "a place of safety" a standard that lifeboats did not meet.

The U-boat threat lessened in , when merchant ships began travelling in convoys , escorted by destroyers.

This tactic made it difficult for U-boats to find targets, which significantly lessened losses; after the hydrophone and depth charges were introduced, accompanying destroyers could attack a submerged submarine with some hope of success.

Convoys slowed the flow of supplies, since ships had to wait as convoys were assembled. The solution to the delays was an extensive program of building new freighters.

Troopships were too fast for the submarines and did not travel the North Atlantic in convoys. Faced with Russia in the east, Austria-Hungary could spare only one-third of its army to attack Serbia.

After suffering heavy losses, the Austrians briefly occupied the Serbian capital, Belgrade. A Serbian counter-attack in the Battle of Kolubara succeeded in driving them from the country by the end of For the first ten months of , Austria-Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy.

German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats, however, scored a coup by persuading Bulgaria to join the attack on Serbia. Montenegro allied itself with Serbia.

Bulgaria declared war on Serbia on 12 October and joined in the attack by the Austro-Hungarian army under Mackensen's army of , that was already underway.

Serbia was conquered in a little more than a month, as the Central Powers, now including Bulgaria, sent in , troops total.

The Serbian army, fighting on two fronts and facing certain defeat, retreated into northern Albania. The Serbs suffered defeat in the Battle of Kosovo.

Montenegro covered the Serbian retreat towards the Adriatic coast in the Battle of Mojkovac in 6—7 January , but ultimately the Austrians also conquered Montenegro.

The surviving Serbian soldiers were evacuated by ship to Greece. In late , a Franco-British force landed at Salonica in Greece to offer assistance and to pressure its government to declare war against the Central Powers.

After intense negotiations and an armed confrontation in Athens between Allied and royalist forces an incident known as Noemvriana , the King of Greece resigned and his second son Alexander took his place; Greece officially joined the war on the side of the Allies in June The Macedonian front was initially mostly static.

French and Serbian forces retook limited areas of Macedonia by recapturing Bitola on 19 November following the costly Monastir Offensive , which brought stabilisation of the front.

Serbian and French troops finally made a breakthrough in September in the Vardar Offensive , after most of the German and Austro-Hungarian troops had been withdrawn.

The Bulgarians were defeated at the Battle of Dobro Pole , and by 25 September British and French troops had crossed the border into Bulgaria proper as the Bulgarian army collapsed.

Bulgaria capitulated four days later, on 29 September The disappearance of the Macedonian front meant that the road to Budapest and Vienna was now opened to Allied forces.

Hindenburg and Ludendorff concluded that the strategic and operational balance had now shifted decidedly against the Central Powers and, a day after the Bulgarian collapse, insisted on an immediate peace settlement.

As the conflict progressed, the Ottoman Empire took advantage of the European powers' preoccupation with the war and conducted large-scale ethnic cleansing of the indigenous Armenian , Greek , and Assyrian Christian populations, known as the Armenian Genocide , Greek Genocide , and Assyrian Genocide.

The British and French opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli and Mesopotamian campaigns In Mesopotamia , by contrast, after the defeat of the British defenders in the Siege of Kut by the Ottomans —16 , British Imperial forces reorganised and captured Baghdad in March The British were aided in Mesopotamia by local Arab and Assyrian tribesmen, while the Ottomans employed local Kurdish and Turcoman tribes.

Russian armies generally had success in the Caucasus campaign. Enver Pasha , supreme commander of the Ottoman armed forces, was ambitious and dreamed of re-conquering central Asia and areas that had been lost to Russia previously.

He was, however, a poor commander. The Ottomans and Germans were aided by Kurdish and Azeri forces, together with a large number of major Iranian tribes, such as the Qashqai , Tangistanis , Luristanis , and Khamseh , while the Russians and British had the support of Armenian and Assyrian forces.

The Persian Campaign was to last until and end in failure for the Ottomans and their allies. However, the Russian withdrawal from the war in led to Armenian and Assyrian forces, who had hitherto inflicted a series of defeats upon the forces of the Ottomans and their allies, being cut off from supply lines, outnumbered, outgunned and isolated, forcing them to fight and flee towards British lines in northern Mesopotamia.

General Yudenich , the Russian commander from to , drove the Turks out of most of the southern Caucasus with a string of victories. Nicholas planned a railway from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories, so that fresh supplies could be brought up for a new offensive in However, in March February in the pre-revolutionary Russian calendar , the Tsar abdicated in the course of the February Revolution , and the Russian Caucasus Army began to fall apart.

Fakhri Pasha , the Ottoman commander of Medina , resisted for more than two and half years during the Siege of Medina before surrendering in January The Senussi tribe, along the border of Italian Libya and British Egypt, incited and armed by the Turks, waged a small-scale guerrilla war against Allied troops.

The British were forced to dispatch 12, troops to oppose them in the Senussi Campaign. Their rebellion was finally crushed in mid Total Allied casualties on the Ottoman fronts amounted , men.

Total Ottoman casualties were , , dead and , wounded. Rome had a secret pact with France, effectively nullifying its part in the Triple Alliance; [] Italy secretly agreed with France to remain neutral if the latter was attacked by Germany.

The Austro-Hungarian government began negotiations to secure Italian neutrality, offering the French colony of Tunisia in return.

The Allies made a counter-offer in which Italy would receive the Southern Tyrol , Austrian Littoral and territory on the Dalmatian coast after the defeat of Austria-Hungary.

This was formalised by the Treaty of London. Fifteen months later, Italy declared war on Germany. The Italians had numerical superiority, but this advantage was lost, not only because of the difficult terrain in which the fighting took place, but also because of the strategies and tactics employed.

On the Trentino front, the Austro-Hungarians took advantage of the mountainous terrain, which favoured the defender. After an initial strategic retreat, the front remained largely unchanged, while Austrian Kaiserschützen and Standschützen engaged Italian Alpini in bitter hand-to-hand combat throughout the summer.

The Austro-Hungarians counterattacked in the Altopiano of Asiago , towards Verona and Padua, in the spring of Strafexpedition , but made little progress and were defeated by the Italians.

Of these eleven offensives, five were won by Italy, three remained inconclusive, and the other three were repelled by the Austro-Hungarians, who held the higher ground.

The Central Powers launched a crushing offensive on 26 October , spearheaded by the Germans, and achieved a victory at Caporetto Kobarid.

The new Italian chief of staff, Armando Diaz , ordered the Army to stop their retreat and defend the Monte Grappa summit, where fortified defenses were constructed; the Italians repelled the Austro-Hungarian and German Army, and stabilised the front at the Piave River.

Since the Italian Army had suffered heavy losses in the Battle of Caporetto, the Italian Government ordered conscription of the so-called ' 99 Boys Ragazzi del '99 : all males born in and prior, who were 18 years old or older.

In , the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through in a series of battles on the Piave and were finally decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October.

On the same day, the Armistice of Villa Giusti was signed. By mid-November , the Italian military occupied the entire former Austrian Littoral and had seized control of the portion of Dalmatia that had been guaranteed to Italy by the London Pact.

Romania had been allied with the Central Powers since When the war began, however, it declared its neutrality, arguing that because Austria-Hungary had itself declared war on Serbia, Romania was under no obligation to join the war.

In return, it received the Allies' formal sanction for Transylvania , Banat and other territories of Austria-Hungary to be annexed to Romania.

The action had large popular support. The Romanian offensive was initially successful in Transylvania, but a Central Powers counterattack by the drove them back.

In January , Romanian forces established control over Bessarabia as the Russian Army abandoned the province. Under the treaty, Romania was obliged to end the war with the Central Powers and make small territorial concessions to Austria-Hungary, ceding control of some passes in the Carpathian Mountains , and to grant oil concessions to Germany.

In exchange, the Central Powers recognised the sovereignty of Romania over Bessarabia. The treaty was renounced in October by the Alexandru Marghiloman government, and Romania nominally re-entered the war on 10 November against the Central Powers.

Russian plans for the start of the war called for simultaneous invasions of Austrian Galicia and East Prussia.

Although Russia's initial advance into Galicia was largely successful, it was driven back from East Prussia by Hindenburg and Ludendorff at the battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes in August and September Despite Russia's success in the June Brusilov Offensive against the Austrians in eastern Galicia, [] the offensive was undermined by the reluctance of other Russian generals to commit their forces to support the victory.

Allied and Russian forces were revived only briefly by Romania's entry into the war on 27 August, as Romania was rapidly defeated by a Central Powers offensive.

Meanwhile, unrest grew in Russia as the Tsar remained at the front. The increasingly incompetent rule of Empress Alexandra drew protests and resulted in the murder of her favourite, Rasputin , at the end of In March , demonstrations in Petrograd culminated in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the appointment of a weak Provisional Government , which shared power with the Petrograd Soviet socialists.

This arrangement led to confusion and chaos both at the front and at home. The army became increasingly ineffective. Following the Tsar's abdication, Vladimir Lenin —with the help of the German government—was ushered by train from Switzerland into Russia 16 April The Revolution of November was followed in December by an armistice and negotiations with Germany.

The treaty ceded vast territories, including Finland, the Baltic provinces , parts of Poland and Ukraine to the Central Powers.

With the adoption of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Entente no longer existed. The Allied powers led a small-scale invasion of Russia, partly to stop Germany from exploiting Russian resources, and to a lesser extent, to support the "Whites" as opposed to the "Reds" in the Russian Civil War.

The Czechoslovak Legion fought on the side of the Entente. Its goal was to win support for the independence of Czechoslovakia.

After this success, the number of Czechoslovak legionaries increased, as well as Czechoslovak military power. In the Battle of Bakhmach , the Legion defeated the Germans and forced them to make a truce.

In Russia, they were heavily involved in the Russian Civil War, siding with the Whites against the Bolsheviks , at times controlling most of the Trans-Siberian railway and conquering all the major cities of Siberia.

The presence of the Czechoslovak Legion near Yekaterinburg appears to have been one of the motivations for the Bolshevik execution of the Tsar and his family in July Legionaries arrived less than a week afterwards and captured the city.

Because Russia's European ports were not safe, the corps was evacuated by a long detour via the port of Vladivostok. The last transport was the American ship Heffron in September On 12 December , after ten brutal months of the Battle of Verdun and a successful offensive against Romania , Germany attempted to negotiate a peace with the Allies.

Soon after, the US president, Woodrow Wilson, attempted to intervene as a peacemaker, asking in a note for both sides to state their demands.

Lloyd George's War Cabinet considered the German offer to be a ploy to create divisions amongst the Allies.

After initial outrage and much deliberation, they took Wilson's note as a separate effort, signalling that the United States was on the verge of entering the war against Germany following the "submarine outrages".

While the Allies debated a response to Wilson's offer, the Germans chose to rebuff it in favour of "a direct exchange of views".

Learning of the German response, the Allied governments were free to make clear demands in their response of 14 January.

They sought restoration of damages, the evacuation of occupied territories, reparations for France, Russia and Romania, and a recognition of the principle of nationalities.

Events of proved decisive in ending the war, although their effects were not fully felt until The British naval blockade began to have a serious impact on Germany.

In response, in February , the German General Staff convinced Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg to declare unrestricted submarine warfare, with the goal of starving Britain out of the war.

German planners estimated that unrestricted submarine warfare would cost Britain a monthly shipping loss of , tons.

The General Staff acknowledged that the policy would almost certainly bring the United States into the conflict, but calculated that British shipping losses would be so high that they would be forced to sue for peace after five to six months, before American intervention could have an effect.

After July, the newly re-introduced convoy system became effective in reducing the U-boat threat. Britain was safe from starvation, while German industrial output fell, and the United States joined the war far earlier than Germany had anticipated.

On 3 May , during the Nivelle Offensive, the French 2nd Colonial Division, veterans of the Battle of Verdun, refused orders, arriving drunk and without their weapons.

Their officers lacked the means to punish an entire division, and harsh measures were not immediately implemented. The French Army Mutinies eventually spread to a further 54 French divisions, and 20, men deserted.

However, appeals to patriotism and duty, as well as mass arrests and trials, encouraged the soldiers to return to defend their trenches, although the French soldiers refused to participate in further offensive action.

Previously, British and French armies had operated under separate commands. In December, the Central Powers signed an armistice with Russia, thus freeing large numbers of German troops for use in the west.

With German reinforcements and new American troops pouring in, the outcome was to be decided on the Western Front. The Central Powers knew that they could not win a protracted war, but they held high hopes for success based on a final quick offensive.

Furthermore, both sides became increasingly fearful of social unrest and revolution in Europe. Thus, both sides urgently sought a decisive victory.

In , Emperor Charles I of Austria secretly attempted separate peace negotiations with Clemenceau, through his wife's brother Sixtus in Belgium as an intermediary, without the knowledge of Germany.

Italy opposed the proposals. When the negotiations failed, his attempt was revealed to Germany, resulting in a diplomatic catastrophe. In early , the front line was extended and the Jordan Valley was occupied, following the First Transjordan and the Second Transjordan attacks by British Empire forces in March and April They were replaced by Indian Army units.

During several months of reorganisation and training of the summer, a number of attacks were carried out on sections of the Ottoman front line.

These pushed the front line north to more advantageous positions for the Entente in preparation for an attack and to acclimatise the newly arrived Indian Army infantry.

It was not until the middle of September that the integrated force was ready for large-scale operations.

The reorganised Egyptian Expeditionary Force, with an additional mounted division, broke Ottoman forces at the Battle of Megiddo in September In two days the British and Indian infantry, supported by a creeping barrage, broke the Ottoman front line and captured the headquarters of the Eighth Army Ottoman Empire at Tulkarm , the continuous trench lines at Tabsor , Arara , and the Seventh Army Ottoman Empire headquarters at Nablus.

The Desert Mounted Corps rode through the break in the front line created by the infantry. Samakh and Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee were captured on the way northwards to Damascus.

The Armistice of Mudros , signed at the end of October, ended hostilities with the Ottoman Empire when fighting was continuing north of Aleppo.

At the outbreak of the war, the United States pursued a policy of non-intervention , avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace.

Germany complied. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. However, he also repeatedly warned that the United States would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law.

Former president Theodore Roosevelt denounced German acts as "piracy". In January , Germany decided to resume unrestricted submarine warfare, in the hopes of starving Britain into surrender.

Germany did this realising it would mean American entry. In return, the Germans would finance Mexico's war and help it recover the territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.

From there it made its way to President Wilson who released the Zimmermann note to the public, and Americans saw it as casus belli. Wilson called on anti-war elements to end all wars, by winning this one and eliminating militarism from the globe.

He argued that the war was so important that the US had to have a voice in the peace conference. The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled "Associated Power".

The United States had a small army, but, after the passage of the Selective Service Act , it drafted 2. German General Staff assumptions that it would be able to defeat the British and French forces before American troops reinforced them were proven incorrect.

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3 Kommentare zu „Wer WarS

  • 05.08.2020 um 05:43
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  • 03.08.2020 um 06:46
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